An Assessment of the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Soils and Vegetables in Fadama Sites along Farin-Gada Bridge, Jos, Plateau State
The study assesses the concentration of heavy metals in soils and vegetables in Fadama sites along Farin-Gada in Jos Metropolis. Samples of vegetables (cabbage and lettuce) and soils were collected from selected Fadama farms and analysis was made for six (6) different heavy metals. These include Lead (pb), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Nickel (Ni). The study site was subdivided into two located at either sites of the River Delimi. Twelve (12) sample points were chosen for all sides of the river (FGB 1-12) for soil samples while six (6) points were chosen for vegetable samples (FGV1-6). These samples were analyzed in the laboratory for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) for soils and vegetables and the results were subjected to statistical analysis of Mean, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation, ANOVA, Correlation, and Regression. The findings revealed that Lead (pb) and Chromium (Cr) had the highest values of 0.092ppm and 0.08ppm, respectively, while Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) had the lowest values of 0.02 and 0.01, respectively. The values were above the WHO-approved standard. This may be attributed to the cosmopolitan nature of the area where a lot of human activities are carried out. The study also shows that a strong relationship existed between soil and vegetables in the study area, Cu had the highest R2 value of 0.86 while the relationship between vegetables with pb, Cd, Zn, Cr and Ni was weak. The study suggested that the use of chemical fertilizers which contain heavy metals should be strictly based on professional advice and that other likely sources of heavy metals such as water, were not included in this research but given attention for further study.